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Medical Teacher: Best Practice for Assessment

Authors: Ronald M. Harden & Pat Lilley.
Medical Teacher 2018. Vol. 40, issue 11.

This issue of Medical Teacher, features articles on a variety of assessment-related topics, such as: selection and recruitment, a framework for good assessment, key-feature questions for effective assessment of clinical reasoning, progress testing, work-place based assessments, etc.

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* I have no financial interest to disclose (GP).

A Delphi study of medical professionalism in Arabian countries: The Four-Gates model

Authors: Mohamed M. Al-Eraky, Jeroen Donkers, Gohar Wajid, Jeroen J. G. van Merrienboer
Medical Teacher 2014. Vol. 36, pages S8-S16.

Medical profeesionalism has been described as a set of attributes and behaviors, yet the Western frameworks of medical professionalism may not resonate with the cultural values of non-Western countries. In this study authors aim to formulate a professionalism framework for healthcare providers as interpreted by local medical professionals in Arabian countries. They shortlisted eight professional traits and coupled them in four themes (Gates): dealing with self, dealing with tasks, dealing with others and dealing with God. Self-accountability and self-motivation were interpreted from a faithful viewpoint as “taqwa” and “ehtesab”, respectively, in Arabic. The authors discuss that the Four-Gates Model could help in better undestanding medical professionalism as grounded in the minds and culture of Arabs. The model may act as a genuine framework for teaching and learning of medical professionalism inArab medical schools.

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* I have no financial interest to disclose (GP).

Surgical simulation: Current practices and future perspectives for technical skills training

Authors: Flemming Bjerrum, Ann Sofia Skou Thomsen, Leizl Joy Nayahangan, Lars Konge
Medical Teacher 2018. Vol. 40, pages 668-75.

Simulation-based training (SBT) has become a standard component of modern surgical education, yet successful implementation of evidence-based training programs remains challenging. In this narrative review, authors use Kern’s framework for curriculum development to describe the current situation and what lies ahead for SBT within surgery with a focus on technical skills in operative procedures.

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* I have no financial interest to disclose (GP).

Twelve tips for the introduction of emotional intelligence in medical education

Authors: Christine G. Roth, Karen W. Eldin, Vijayalakshmi Padmanabhan, Ellen M. Firedman.
Medical Teacher 2018. Vol. 40, pages 633-638.

Abstract (as extracted from the paper):
Emotional intelligence (EI) is the ability to recognize, understand, and manage emotions in yourself and in others. EI has long been recognized as a critical component for individual and organizational success within the business realm, and there is emerging evidence that enhancing EI is equally important in the medical setting. EI can improve interpersonal communications, enable constructive conflict resolution, and promote a culture of professionalism. As healthcare becomes increasingly team-based, proficiency in EI will be required to build consensus among multidisciplinary stakeholders, and effect change in attitudes and behaviors that result in improved patient safety and clinical outcomes. Based on the existing literature and the authors’ experiences, these 12 tips provide practical suggestions on how to introduce EI into a medical curriculum. These tips have broad applicability, and can be implemented in courses on topics such as professionalism, leadership development, empathy, patient safety, or wellness.

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* I have no financial interest to disclose (GP).

CPD? What happened to CME? CME and beyond.

Authors: Helena Prior Filipe, Karl Golnik, Heather Mack.
View this article at: https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/0142159X.2018.1471200?journalCode=imte20.

Continuing medical education (CME) has been evolving into continuing professional development (CPD) and more recently into competency-based continuing professional development (CBCPD). Authors describe this progression and the consequent changes in CPD programs developed by educators, appraise emerging challenges in CPD, propose strategies to overcome them and conclude by recommending research in CPD as the best way to consistently guide effective CPD programs and systems aligned with the public healthcare needs and expectations..

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* I have no financial interest to disclose (GP).

Principles of Assessement and Effective Feedback.

Authors: Jorge Eugenio Valdez-García, Mildred Vanessa López-Cabrera, Elena Ríos Barrientos.
View this article at: http://aes.amegroups.com/article/view/3758/html.

The highly competitive offer of medical training programs and schools, globalization and constant mobility of physicians and medical students, and the commitment to society to deliver competent physicians, demands the definition of performance standards. This would allow to make their performances comparable no matter where they studied or which textbook did they used as reference, to have evaluation mechanisms that guarantee mastery of the integral evaluation of the performance. Assessment has been the key in the teaching-learning process as this obtains a formative and summative element, at different moments, from the extent to which the students have acquired knowledge, skills and attitudes. The progress of the learner must be enhanced with effective feedback on their performance and self-direction of the results obtained in each of the mechanisms established. If, traditionally, this has been considered as the accreditation of compliance with a standard, the evaluation also functions in an integral way as a formative process that identifies advances and deficiencies in the training of residents that allows the definition of actions and strategies for improving the operation of the programs. Different assessment mechanisms are associated with the areas of competence domain, some of the most common tools are: theoretical exams, checklists and rubrics, portfolio, projects and challenges. However, the importance of defining standards which are perceived as fair and designed according to the learning objectives remains a priority to guarantee the credibility of the evaluation agencies and institutions. Some strategies to assure credibility include the involvement of expert and trained evaluators, allowing the process to be carried out with transparency and diligence, and the principles employed should be supported by educational research.

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* I have no financial interest to disclose (GP).

Teaching in the operating room: trends in surgical skills transfer in ophthalmology

Authors: Anastasia Neufeld, Laura L. Hanson, Jeff Pettey.
View this article at: http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/aes.2017.06.05.

Cataract surgery is arguably the most commonly performed operation in ophthalmology. Surgical skills transfer from experienced surgeons to resident surgeons is complicated by the fact that the teaching surgeon primarily acts as an observer rather than directly performing the procedure. Therefore, wet lab and simulator training are utilized to reduce the learning curve of the novice surgeons, which establishes tissue awareness, dexterity and muscle memory required to perform each step of the procedure, safely. Access to a wet lab and simulator environment is accomplished by establishing a surgical training curriculum in residency programs. In the operating room, topical anesthesia is a safe alternative for teaching cataract surgery. There are three well-described approaches to teaching individual steps of cataract surgery: forward, “backwards”, and deconstructed step-by-step instruction. Simulator training can be incorporated prior to live patient experience or integrated concurrently with learner presence in the operating room. The trend towards a competency-based instruction model has necessitated appropriate evaluation tools that include Objective Assessment of Skills in Intraocular Surgery (OASIS), Global Rating Assessment of Skills in Intraocular Surgery (GRASIS), and the International Council of Ophthalmology’s Ophthalmology Surgical Competency Assessment Rubrics (ICO-OSCAR). Authors review the literature on trends in surgical teaching in ophthalmology, with the focus on cataract surgery instruction to the novice surgeon.

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* I have no financial interest to disclose (GP).

The Fallacy of the Traditional Classroom: Why We Need to Flip the Classroom

Author: Eduardo P. Mayorga.
doi: 10.21037/aes.2017.05.07.

This perspective describes and justifies the need for looking for alternatives for the traditional lecture classroom such as the “flipped classroom”. The author describes a 4-step process for building the class. Suggestions are made on how to create or curate material for lectures and software for generating interactivity in the active part of the classroom.

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* I have no financial interest to disclose (GP).

Program & faculty evaluation

Author: Andreas K. Lauer.
Ann Eye Sci 2017; 2:44.

Graduate medical education (GME) has shifted its curricula from process-oriented approach to outcomes-oriented models. Program and faculty evaluation are methods by which educational curricula may adjust the teaching and learning environment to meet the needs and fills the gaps in GME. The measurement of educational outcomes is an essential for assessing teaching effectiveness in a shifting health care environment. In addition to trainee, program, and faculty evaluations, annual program review (APR) and evaluation and navigational changes made by the program education committee are essential to maintain effectiveness of an educational curriculum in a contemporary graduate medical training program.

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* I have no financial interest to disclose (GP).

Program accreditation

Author: Karl C. Golnik.
Ann Eye Sci 2017; 2:45.

Program accreditation is usually a voluntary process based on published standards and performed by a governmental or non-governmental agency of peers. The accreditation process has several components: self-assessment guide completion, site visit and review of program data by the accrediting body. Program accreditation’s primary function is to facilitate self-assessment, provide standards of education and lead to program improvement. It also serves to protect the student’s education and ultimately improve patient care. The International Council of Ophthalmology has developed International Guidelines for accreditation of ophthalmology residency programs and is launching a pilot program to accredit programs on demand.

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* I have no financial interest to disclose (GP).